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State of New York vs. COVID-19 - Governor Andrew M. Cuomo periodically updates New Yorkers on the state's progress during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The latest reports of the number of new cases, the percentage of tests that were positive and many other relevant data points concerning COVID-19 are available at

N.B. §22 of the New York State's General Construction Law, in pertinent part, provides that “Whenever words of the masculine or feminine gender appear in any law, rule or regulation, unless the sense of the sentence indicates otherwise, they shall be deemed to refer to both male or female persons.” NYPPL applies this protocol to individuals referred to in a decision self-identifying as LGBTQA+.

April 29, 2021

The plaintiff's failure to file a timely notice of claim as required by Education Law §3813(1) will typically result in the granting of a motion to dismiss the complaint

§3813 of the Education Law sets out the procedures to be followed with respect to the filing of claims against the governing body of any school district in New York State and certain state supported schools.

Supreme Court granted the New York City Department of Education's [DOE] motion for summary judgment dismissing the Plaintiffs' action alleging DOE had unlawfully discriminate against them, finding that Plaintiffs had failed to file a timely "notice of claim" with DOE as required by §3813(1) of the Education Law.

Plaintiffs appealed the Supreme Court's ruling. The Appellate Division, however, sustained the lower court's decision, explaining:

1. Plaintiffs' argument relying on Margerum v City of Buffalo, 24 NY3d 721, and its progeny, was "raised improperly for the first time in [Plaintiffs'] reply brief on appeal;"

2. Were Margerum properly before the court, Plaintiffs' reliance on Margerum for the proposition that no notice of claim is required where the complaint alleges violations of the State and City Human Rights Laws is misplaced "where a notice of claim is required pursuant to Education Law §3813(1)"; and

3. The fact that the individually named defendants were not DOE officers is irrelevant with respect to the issue of whether DOE is within the ambit of §3813(1) notice of claim requirement.

Click HERE to access the Appellate Division's decision.


Public Personnel Law E-books

The Discipline Book - A concise guide to disciplinary actions involving public employees in New York State set out in a 700 page e-book. For more information click on

A Reasonable Disciplinary Penalty Under the Circumstances - A 442-page e-book focusing on determining an appropriate disciplinary penalty to be imposed on an employee in the public service in instances where the employee has been found guilty of misconduct or incompetence. Now available in two formats - as a large, paperback print edition and as an e-book. Click on for more information.

The Layoff, Preferred List and Reinstatement Manual - A 645 page e-book reviewing the relevant laws, rules and regulations, and selected court and administrative decisions. For more information click on

Disability Leave for fire, police and other public sector personnel - A 1098 page e-book focusing on disability benefits available to public officers and employees employed by New York State and its political subdivisions. For more information click on