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N.B. §22 of New York State's General Construction Law, in pertinent part, provides that “Whenever words of the masculine or feminine gender appear in any law, rule or regulation, unless the sense of the sentence indicates otherwise, they shall be deemed to refer to both male or female persons.” NYPPL typically follows this protocol.

NYPPL's most recent posting is set out below.

December 30, 2019

Audits released by the New York State's State Comptroller

ODecember 3, 2019 New York State Comptroller Thomas P. DiNapoli announced the following audits had been issued:

Click on the text in blue to access the text of the full report.
An audit issued in September 2018 found DOH has taken various actions to safeguard the quality of drinking water delivered to public water system customers. However, auditors identified opportunities for improved oversight. In a follow-up, auditors found DOH implemented both recommendations contained in the original report.

An audit issued in September 2018 found DOH completed inspections in a timely manner and reported deficient practices to the public, as required. However, auditors identified gaps in DOH’s procedures that weaken its ability to effectively monitor nursing homes’ equipment inspection, testing and maintenance programs. In a follow-up, auditors found DOH officials made progress in addressing the problems identified in the initial audit. 

LIRR employees did not always follow the required fare collection procedures. Between December 2018 and May 2019, auditors noted that train service personnel did not collect non-commutation fares 26 percent of the time (78 of 301 rides). Auditors also found that employees often collected incorrect fare amounts (for example, when no onboard surcharge was collected).

An audit released in March 2018 found that the transit unit was not in compliance with the requirements of the training curriculum established for its train crews, and that train operators and conductors did not always meet or complete refresher training requirements. In a follow-up, auditors determined that MTA officials made some progress in addressing the problems identified in the initial audit report. However, improvements are still needed. 

An audit issued in January 2018 found that the DFTA needed to improve its oversight of senior centers. For example, officials could not demonstrate that they contracted with optimally located senior centers to maximize the number of eligible senior citizens who had access to congregate meals. In a follow-up, auditors determined DFTA officials have made some progress in addressing the issues identified in the initial report.

An audit issued in August 2018 identified $991,357 in overpayments that occurred because United paid for out-of-network anesthesia services that should have been done by in-network anesthesia providers. In a follow-up, auditors found United officials recovered $780,478 of the $991,357 in overpayments.

An audit issued in September 2018 found that OPWDD needed to improve its fiscal oversight of the YAI Network. For example, OPWDD had not established controls to ensure the expenses claimed by the YAI Network were reasonable, necessary, allowable, supported, and consistent with requirements. In a follow-up, auditors found OPWDD officials made significant progress in addressing the problems identified in the initial audit.

December 3, 2019

Articles by Dr. Robert A. Michaels, NYPER's environmental science consultant, recently published in the Environmental Claims Journal:

Excessive PCBs in the Hudson River is discussed in an article by Dr. Michaels [corresponding author, [] and Uriel M. Oko. Click on the URL below for free access to the full text of the article from ResearchGate via the following URL:.


Fracking in New York State: weighing risks and benefits - Click on the URL below for free  access to the full text of this article by Dr. Michaels [corresponding author, [] and Dr. Randy W. Simon and can be downloaded from ResearchGate at no charge via the following URL: 


Concerns about Electromagnetic Fields [EMFs] have been noted, most recently related to expanding of 5G antenna networks that are speeding up Internet service in communities. An article addressing this issue by Dr. Michaels [] can be downloaded from ResearchGate at no charge via the following URL:


Fungal risk vectors in the context of climate changean article by Dr. Michaels [] addressing emerging health problems in the context of climate change can be downloaded from ResearchGate at no charge  via the following URL:


Reducing significant environmental impacts and potential public health risks associated with United States Postal Service operations is the focus of an article by Dr. Michaels []  and can be downloaded from ResearchGate at no charge via the following URL:


Legacy Water Contaminants of Emerging Concernthis article by Dr. Michaels [] can be downloaded from ResearchGate at no charge via the following URL:


Emerging green synergy in the science/religion relationship:  from conflict to potentially planet-saving cooperation.  The full text of the article can be downloaded from at no charge via the following URL:

December 2, 2019

New York City Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings' administrate law judge finds Appointing Authority failed to prove the disciplinary charges filed against an employee

An employee of the New York Department of Correction [Employee] was served with disciplinary charges pursuant to §75 of the Civil Service Law alleging Employee was guilty of insubordination and inefficient work performance as the result of his leaving his assigned work tasks before their completion on two occasions.

With respect his leaving work on one of the two occasions charged Employee testified that he had asked his supervisor to reassign him to a different work assignment when he felt unsafe working in an inmate area without another employee present.

New York City Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings [OATH] Administrative Law Judge Joycelyn McGeachy-Kuls credited the  Employee’s testimony that he was reassigned to another task that day over the supervisor’s testimony that Employee "did nothing for the rest of the day."

With respect to the second occasion, Employee told his supervisor that he objected to his assignment which required him to work in an inmate area. His supervisor then offered Employee two options:

[a] Employee could request a transfer; or

[b] Employee could return to work.

Employee elected to request a transfer.

Judge McGeachy-Kuls found that the appointing authority had failed to prove any of the §75  disciplinary charges filed against Employee. Accordingly the ALJ  recommended that the Appointing Authority dismiss all disciplinary charges filed against Employee

ALJ McGeachy-Kuls explaining that in this disciplinary proceeding the Appointing Authority had the burden of proving its case by a fair preponderance of the credible evidence and that preponderance has been defined as “the burden of persuading the triers of fact that the existence of the fact is more probable than its non-existence.”

Citing Rinaldi & Sons, Inc. v Wells Fargo Alarm Service, Inc., 39 N.Y.2d 191, Judge McGeachy-Kuls observed that in earlier OATH proceedings the presiding ALJ had ruled that "where the evidence is equally balanced, the charges must be dismissed."

The decision is posted on the Internet at:


The Discipline Book - A concise guide to disciplinary actions involving public officers and employees in New York State. For more information click on

A Reasonable Disciplinary Penalty Under the Circumstances - Determining an appropriate disciplinary penalty to be imposed on an employee in the public service found guilty of misconduct or incompetence. For more information click on

Disability Benefits for fire, police and other public sector personnel - Addresses retirement for disability under the NYS Employees' Retirement System, the NYS Teachers' Retirement System, General Municipal Law Sections 207-a/207-c and similar statutes providing benefits to employees injured both "on-the-job" and "off-the-job." For more information click on

The Layoff, Preferred List and Reinstatement Manual -Focusing on relevant laws, rules and regulations, and selected court and administrative decisions. For more information click on

Please Note:

Subsequent court and administrative rulings, or additions or amendments to laws, rules and regulations may have modified or clarified or vacated or reversed or otherwise have had an impact on the decisions summarized here. Accordingly, these summaries should be Shepardized® or otherwise checked to make certain that the most recent information is being considered by the reader.



Consistent with the Declaration of Principles jointly adopted by a Committee of the American Bar Association and a Committee of Publishers and Associations, the material in this blog is presented with the understanding that the publisher, editor, contributors or members of the staff are not providing legal advice to the reader and in the event legal or other expert assistance is needed, the reader is advised to seek such advice from a competent professional.

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Text prepared by Harvey Randall except as otherwise noted. Randall, former Principal Attorney, New York State Department of Civil Service, also served as Director of Personnel for the State University System; as Director of Research, Governor’s Office of Employee Relations; and as Staff Judge Advocate General, New York Guard. He has an MPA from the Maxwell School, Syracuse University and a J.D. from Albany Law School.