October 31, 2023

Civil Rights Law §50-a as amended by Chapter 96, Laws of 2020 held to apply to law enforcement officer personnel records retroactively

As is relevant here, former Civil Rights Law §50-a provided, with limited exceptions, that "[a]ll personnel records [of law enforcement officers] used to evaluate performance toward continued employment or promotion ... shall be considered confidential and not subject to inspection or review" (see Matter of New York Civ. Liberties Union v New York City Police Dept., 32 NY3d 556).

The legislature repealed Civil Rights Law §50-a [see Chapter 96, Laws of 2020] and made several related amendments to the State's Freedom of Information Law [FOIL], providing that such changes "shall take effect immediately".

In the words of the Appellate Division, "repeal of Civil Rights Law §50-a ... reflected a strong legislative policy promoting transparency of police disciplinary records and eliminated any claim of confidentiality in them" (see People v Castellanos, 72 Misc 3d 371)).

The Appellate Division then held that "the repeal of Civil Rights Law §50-a applies retroactively to records created prior to June 12, 2020", citing Schenectady Police Benevolent Assn. v City of Schenectady, 2020 WL 7978093; 2020 NY Slip Op 34346[U].

In the words of the Appellate Division, while "the legislature made no express statement in the repeal itself, or in the limited legislative history concerning the same, as to whether the repeal was to be applied retroactively [the amendments] "went into effect immediately and, by its plain reading and intent, applies to records then existing and not simply to records created at a time subsequent to the enactment of the legislation."

Citing Majewski v Broadalbin-Perth Cent. School Dist., 91 NY2d 577, the court said "While the characterization of a statute as remedial is not dispositive, as a general matter, "remedial legislation should be given retroactive effect in order to effectuate its beneficial purpose".

Click HERE to access the decision of the Appellate Division posted on the Internet.


Regulating the risks of artificial intelligence

CNN reports the White House rolled out a sweeping executive order on October 30, 2032 "that aims to monitor and regulate the risks of artificial intelligence while also harnessing its potential."

Click HERE to access the CNN article posted on the Internet.

Attendance and Leave Policy Bulletins posted on Internet on October 30, 2023 by the New York State Department of Civil Service

The New York State Department of Civil Service has published the following Attendance and Leave Policy Bulletins:

If you wish to print these bulletins a version in PDF format is posted at:

To view previous Attendance and Leave bulletins issued by the Department of Civil Service, visit:

October 30, 2023

OATH Administrative Law Judge recommended the appointing authority terminate an employee found guilty of assaulting a co-worker

New York City Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings Administrative Law Judge [ALJ] Julia H. Lee recommended the termination of the employment of an administrative manager [Respondent] the ALJ found guilty of disciplinary charges that alleged Respondent had assaulted a co-worker [Co-worker] by striking him on the head with a metal pipe.

Co-worker did not testify at the trial* but the Appointing Authority [Employer] presented the testimony of six employees who "heard a commotion and arrived on scene" and witnessed the interaction between Respondent and Co-worker.

The failure of Co-worker to testify triggered the Respondent's asking the ALJ to apply the sanction of "adverse inference"** based on Employer’s failure to call Co-worker as a witness. 

Judge Lee opined that "An adverse/negative inference based on a missing witness may be appropriate where the moving party has laid a foundation that the witness has knowledge about a material issue, that he would naturally be expected to give testimony favorable to the party who failed to call him, and that the witness is available to that party," citing Comm’n on Human Rights ex rel. Brehshiek Marquez v. Fresh & Co., OATH Index No. 434/22 at 24-25.

Considering the particular facts of this case and the ALJ's credibility determinations with respect to the testimony of the Respondent and the testimony of the Employer’s witnesses, Judge Lee:

[1] Declined to draw an adverse inference as the result of Co-worker’s refusal to testify at the disciplinary hearing or the Employer’s failure to call Co-worker as a witness, noting "The factfinder’s drawing of an adverse inference is permissive, not required", citing People v. Gonzalez, 68 N.Y.2d at 431, and LLC v. Ward, 276 A.D.2d 277, 278; and 

[2] Did not credit the Respondent’s testimony that Co-worker had struck her first.

Judge Lee, duly noting Respondent's employment by the agency for 36 years, concluded that the gravity of the "violent conduct" of Respondent which resulted in the instant disciplinary action, and that Respondent had been involved in "four prior incidents of disruptive behavior", warranted termination and recommended that the penalty of dismissal be imposed on Respondent by the Employer.

 * The disciplinary hearing was conducted via WebEx videoconference.

 ** The "adverse inference" sanction is based on the theory that if a litigant fails to present certain known evidence or testimony, such evidence or testimony would not be helpful, or might even be harmful, to the litigant. In Varriale v City of New York, 148 AD3d 650, the Appellate Division opined the failure of a defendant in an administrative disciplinary procedure to testify concerning an event permits a disciplinary hearing officer to draw the strongest inference against the defendant permitted by the record.

Click HERE to access Judge Lee's findings and recommendation posted on the Internet.

 * * *

A Reasonable Disciplinary Penalty Under the Circumstances. NYPPL's public personnel law handbook focusing on determining an appropriate disciplinary penalty to be imposed on an officer or an employee in the public service of the State of New York and its political subdivisions in instances where the individual has been found guilty of misconduct or incompetence. For more information and access to a free excerpt of the material presented in this e-book, click HERE. 


October 28, 2023

Selected links to items focusing on government operations posted on the Internet during the week ending October 27, 2023

8 Features of the Best Audit Management Software for Public Sector The shift to electronic working papers in the audit community fosters collaboration but inadvertently generates dark data. Audit management software offers solutions to access, analyze and maximize audit data's value. READ MORE

AI Bots Are Helping 911 Dispatchers Manage Workloads The use of artificial intelligence is partly a response to an acute staffing crisis and the pressing need to address the mental health challenges that emergency responders face. READ MORE

Building Culture While Working Remote in Washington State Washington CIO Bill Kehoe and Chief of Staff Amy Pearson explain that while their agency is fully remote and even hiring out-of-state talent, they still find ways to bring staff together on big projects. READ MORE

Combat Public Sector Benefit Fraud  Fraudsters utilize sophisticated generative AI technologies to undermine benefits programs. Without secure identity proofing you leave individuals at risk. READ MORE

Cybersecurity Incident Disrupts Courts in Kansas  Florida's First Judicial Circuit Court system announced plans to cancel and reschedule some proceedings following a separate cyber attack earlier in the month. READ MORE

Emory University law professor, to shed light on the crucial intersection of law, policy, climate adaptation, and flood risk. VIEW MORE DETAILS AND REGISTER HERE

Erie County DA Announces Online Scam Reporting  A New York county’s district attorney has announced an online complaint form to report the myriad scams being perpetrated in cyberspace. Those reports will be reviewed by a Special Investigations and Prosecutions Bureau. READ MORE

ERP Seller Springbrook Turns to AI for Customer Service The new HelpDesk AI from Springbrook Software is designed to help customers find information about HR, payroll, tax collection and other tools. This marks the latest use of ChatGPT in tech made for local government. READ MORE

Federal Government Offers Cybersecurity Toolkit for Health Sector CISA and partners announced a toolkit bringing together advice and other resources to help health care and public health organizations improve their cyber postures. READ MORE

Guide: The New Era of Government Work Hybrid work is an exciting new world filled with the power and potential to transform agencies throughout your state or local government network. DOWNLOAD PDF

Inside the Quest to Create Unbreakable Encryption Computer scientists, mathematicians and cryptographers are on a quest to find new encryption algorithms that can withstand attacks not only from today’s conventional computers but also from tomorrow’s quantum machines. READ MORE

Job opportunities at NYC's Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings: OATH regularly posts employment opportunities on the NYC Jobs portal and on its website. View current openings.

Local Governments Band Together to Address Use of AI Led by the co-chairs named earlier this month, the members of MetroLab Network’s GenAI for Local Governments Task Force will work together to create a comprehensive resource of guidance on the use of AI technology. READ MORE

Schools Make E-Rate Cybersecurity Money Top Funding Priority The federal E-rate program has the potential to be a well of funding for cybersecurity that K-12 schools and libraries are eager to tap to protect themselves from increasingly sophisticated cybercriminals. READ MORE

The Future of Sustainable Cities: A Whole-of-Government Approach to Electric Vehicle Implementation  EVs drive urban resilience: harnessing cross-government strategy and funding for sustainable transformation. READ MORE

Transforming Community Infrastructure for Water Conservation  Local governments can drastically improve water conservation with a comprehensive approach to water management. READ MORE

Webinar: Adapting Legal Frameworks to Address Climate Change in High Flood Risk Communities  On Wednesday, Nov 1, at 1pm ET, Forerunner is hosting Mark Nevitt, an Emory University law professor, to shed light on the crucial intersection of law, policy, climate adaptation, and flood risk. VIEW MORE DETAILS AND REGISTER HERE

When Building an AI Strategy, Start With the Guardrails  States are starting to hire experts to navigate both the opportunities and the trickier aspects of AI. Maryland's Nishant Shah says job No. 1 is establishing a set of principles that set the foundation for everything else. READ MORE



October 27, 2023

Municipal and School Audits released by New York State Comptroller Thomas P. DiNapoli

On October 25, 2023 New York State Comptroller Thomas P. DiNapoli announced the following local government and school audits were issued.

Click on the text highlighted in color to access both the summary and the complete audit report

Marathon Joint Fire District – Investment Program (Cortland County)  

District officials did not develop and manage a comprehensive investment program. The board did not develop and adopt a comprehensive written investment policy as required by state law until the end of the audit period. The district earned interest totaling approximately $2,000 from its checking and savings accounts, which had an average daily balance of approximately $567,000 during the audit period. However, the district could have earned approximately $12,600 more had officials used other available investment options. Officials did not consider other legally permissible investment options or formally solicit interest rate quotes that may have resulted in higher investment earnings. As a result of the audit, the board subsequently approved an investment policy in March 2023 and invested $653,000. 


Depew Union Free School District – Investment Program (Erie County)  

District officials did not develop and manage a comprehensive investment program. The business administrator and district officials did not invest available funds in financial institutions that offered competitive interest rates, prepare monthly cash flow forecasts to estimate funds available to invest or solicit interest rate quotes. Over a 16-month period, officials missed an opportunity for the district to realize approximately $487,000 in additional investment earnings. Had the district realized such earnings, the board may have been able to avoid increasing the 2023-24 tax levy.  


Lake Placid Central School District – Investment Program (Essex County)  

District officials did not develop and manage a comprehensive investment program. The assistant superintendent for business, finance and support services and district officials did not solicit interest rate quotes or prepare monthly cash flow forecasts to estimate funds available to invest or consider other legally authorized investment options when investing available funds. Had officials done so the district might have earned approximately $267,000 more in investment earnings than the $189,305 earned during the audit period. 


Lake Placid Central School District – Transportation State Aid (Essex County)  

District officials did not apply for all applicable transportation state aid for new bus acquisitions. As a result, the district’s taxpayers will not benefit from the $18,842 in aid the district would have received upon State Education Department (SED) approval. In addition, if officials do not properly file the aid applications with SED, taxpayers will also not benefit from the remaining $45,034 officials can claim. 


October 26, 2023

A college student disciplinary hearing is not a quasi-judicial proceeding absent certain procedural safeguards

Plaintiff appealed a partial final judgment by a United States District Court judge dismissing his claims alleging "defamation and tortious interference with contract" brought against Yale University and certain named parties [University]. University had accused Plaintiff, of sexual assaulting another student, "Jane Doe" [Doe], while both were students at Yale.

Plaintiff argued that the district court erred in finding:

1. University had absolute quasi-judicial immunity for statements made at a University disciplinary hearing that resulted in Plaintiff’s expulsion from Yale; and 

2. Plaintiff’s tortious interference claims were untimely.

In its preliminary review, the Second Circuit said it was unable to determine whether the Connecticut Supreme Court [Connecticut] would recognize the Yale disciplinary hearing at issue as a quasi-judicial proceeding, supporting University's claim of absolute immunity in the action brought by Plaintiff. Accordingly, it certified questions pertinent to that issue to Connecticut.

Connecticut responded, indicating that absolute immunity could not be claimed by  University in Plaintiff's action because the Yale disciplinary hearing at issue was not a quasi-judicial proceeding. Connecticut explained the Yale disciplinary hearing lacked certain procedural safeguards such as an oath requirement, the ability to call witnesses, an opportunity to cross-examine witnesses, meaningful assistance of counsel, and an adequate record for appeal, all typically associated with judicial proceedings.

Further, while Connecticut recognized the possibility for participants in such a hearing to be shielded by qualified immunity, Connecticut concluded the "University is not presently entitled to dismissal on that ground because [Plaintiff’s] complaint sufficiently pleads the malice necessary to defeat such immunity."

Accordingly, the Second Circuit:

1. Affirmed, in part, so much of the district court's judgment that dismissed as untimely Plaintiff’s tortious interference claim based on Doe’s 2015 statements; and

2. Vacated, in part, so much of the district court's judgment that dismissed Plaintiff's action under color of absolute immunity with respect to Plaintiff’s defamation and tortious interference claims based on Doe’s 2018 statements.

The Second Circuit then remanded the matter to the district court "for further proceedings consistent with this opinion."

Click HERE to access the Second Circuit's decision posted on the Internet.


October 25, 2023

Commissioner of Education asked to remove certain school officials for willfully disobeying a decision of the Commissioner

In this ultimate of several appeals to the Commissioner of Education, Petitioner contends that certain officials of a BOCES [Respondents] should be removed from their respective positions because, among other reasons, they willfully disobeyed a decision of the Commissioner of Education.

The Respondents contended that the petition is moot because Petitioner:

[1] Was earlier restored to the payroll and paid all back wages; and

[2] Respondents had not engaged in a willful violation of law or neglect of duty because they generally acted upon advice of counsel.

The instant appeal, reported as Ed Dept. 18,347, arises out of the events described in appeals to the Commissioner reported, respectively, as 62 Ed Dept Rep, Decision No. 18,147 and 62 Ed Dept Rep, Decision No. 18,211.  

In brief, Respondents terminated Petitioner’s probationary appointment. In the appeal that followed the Commissioner of Education found that the three stated reasons advanced by Respondents for terminating Petitioner were “too vague to allow [Petitioner] to ascertain whether any of the reasons were constitutionally or statutorily impermissible" and remanded the matter to the Board.

The Commissioner ordered, among other things, that the district superintendent resubmit her recommendation with “appropriate specifics of the reasons therefor.” The Commissioner also directed the Board to make a new decision regarding the proposed discontinuance of Petitioner’s probationary appointment.

In the instant application, Petitioner contended that Respondents should be removed because, among other reasons, they willfully disobeyed the Commissioner's decision in Decision No. 18,211.  Petitioner also argues that the Superintendent improperly denied a request to discuss her circumstances in executive session.  For relief, Petitioner requests the removal of all named Respondents and an award of costs and fees.

Respondents contend that the petition is moot because Petitioner was restored to the payroll as of January 3, 2023 and paid all back wages as of January 13, 2023.  Respondents additionally contend that they have not engaged in a willful violation of law or neglect of duty because they generally acted upon advice of counsel.

The Commissioner opined that the crucial question in the instant application is whether any Board member understood that Petitioner was not going to be paid or reinstated while BOCES' attorneys prepared and filed a judicial appeal.  Noting that the record does not provide a clear answer, the Commissioner declined to remove any members of the Board, explaining that in this instance "The practical responsibility for implementing [the Commissioner's] decision lay with the District Superintendent and BOCES staff, not the [Board]."

The Commissioner also noted that to the extent board members receive legal advice concerning an issue, board members who act on such advice of counsel lack the requisite willfulness to warrant removal from office unless no reasonable person could have believed the advice to be lawful. The Commissioner opined "Any legal advice justifying [the Board Members'] actions would not, in [her] view, meet this demanding standard."

This, said the Commissioner, does not mean that she condoned Respondent’s  conduct as they failed to cite any legal authority for the proposition that it was entitled to delay implementation of the Commissioner's earlier decision [see Decisions of the Commissioner Decision No. 18,211]. Further, in the words of the Commissioner, "the evidence in the record suggests that BOCES did not implement the decision in an attempt to bolster its case for temporary relief in the judicial appeal.* 

In the words of the Commissioner: "This was improper.  Petitioner had a legal right to return to the classroom, with pay, within a reasonable time after issuance of my decision [No. 18,211].  Not only did BOCES fail to do this, but it did not clearly communicate with [Petitioner] about her status for over a month.  And, even then, counsel for BOCES only did so in response to [Petitioner’s] inquiry 'about the process for [her] reinstatement, backpay, etc.'  This exceeded any reasonable period necessary to implement decision and deprived [Petitioner] of work, and pay, for over a month.  I remind BOCES that, absent a judicial order, it must implement all orders of the Commissioner, even those with which it disagrees (see Education Law §§ 306, 310, 311)."

* In an affidavit submitted with this appeal, counsel for BOCES indicated that she "spoke with outside counsel ... and 'expressed concern that the time lapse'  i.e., filing the judicial appeal a few weeks after [the Commissioner's Decision No. 18,211] would affect the request for a stay.”  

Click HERE to access the Commissioner's ruling in Decisions of the Commissioner Number 18,347.


October 24, 2023

Judicial review of administrative determinations is limited to the facts and record adduced in the course of the agency's administrative hearing

The New York City Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings [OATH] affirmed so much of a determination of a hearing officer, as, after a hearing, found that Petitioner in the administrative appeal violated Administrative Code of the City of New York §28-210.3 and directed the petitioner to pay a civil penalty of $1,000 per day for a period of 39 days.

The Appellate Division confirmed OATH's ruling "on the merits," without costs or disbursements.

Petitioner had filed an administrative appeal from so much of the hearing officer's determination as imposed a civil penalty of $1,000 per day for a period of 39 days. Petitioner contended that the violation of Administrative Code §28-210.3 at issue was cured almost immediately after the Petitioner received notice of the violation and, therefore, the daily penalties should be limited to only two days. 

OATH, however, had  affirmed so much of the hearing officer's determination as directed the Petitioner to pay a civil penalty of $1,000 per day for a period of 39 days from November 9, 2019, to December 17, 2019, December 17, 2019 being "the date the violation was corrected according to a sworn certificate of correction of the Petitioner's owner".

Citing Matter of Call-A-Head Portable Toilets, Inc. v New York State Dept. of Envtl. Conservation, 213 AD3d 842, the Appellate Division said "Judicial review of an administrative determination made after a hearing required by law, and at which evidence was taken, is limited to whether that determination is supported by substantial evidence", observing that "Substantial evidence 'means such relevant proof as a reasonable mind may accept as adequate to support a conclusion or ultimate fact'".

Here, contrary to Petitioner's contention, the Appellate Division opined that OATH's determination directing the Petitioner to pay a civil penalty of $1,000 per day for a period of 39 days was supported by substantial evidence, including the sworn statement by the Petitioner's owner in the certificate of correction identifying December 17, 2019, as the date the violation was corrected.

Noting that judicial review of administrative determinations is confined to the facts and record adduced before the agency, the court opined that Petitioner's reliance upon evidence that it did not introduce at the hearing was improper.

Click HERE to access the Appellate Division's decision posted on the Internet.


October 23, 2023

Part-time teaching assistants not within the ambit of Education Law §3013(2) in the event of a layoff

Education Law §3013(2) provides as follows: "Whenever a trustee, board of trustee, board of education or board of cooperative educational services abolishes a position under this chapter, the services of the teacher having the least seniority in the system within the tenure of the position abolished shall be discontinued."

Two part-time teaching assistants [Petitioners] challenged their termination by the Board of Education when the Board declined to terminate the employment of at least two full-time teaching assistants having less seniority. Petitioners contended that the Board's decision resulting in their termination violate Education Law §3013(2) and provisions set out in a collective bargaining agreement between the Board and Petitioners' union.*

Supreme Court denied the Petitioners' petitions and dismissed the proceeding. The Appellate Division affirmed the Supreme Court's ruling.

Pursuant to Education Law §3013(2), whenever a board of education "abolishes a position under this chapter, the services of the teacher having the least seniority in the system within the tenure of the position abolished shall be discontinued." In this instance the relevant collective bargaining agreement provided that "[l]ayoffs for Teaching Assistants shall be in accordance with Education Law Section 3013." Moreover, the Court of Appeals has recognized that teaching assistants fall within the ambit of Education Law §3013(2) "for the purpose of determining layoffs".**

However, the Board contended that the protections afforded individuals pursuant to Education Law §3013(2) apply only to full-time teaching assistants and that the Petitioners were part-time teaching assistants. Petitioners did not dispute the Board's contention that Education Law §3013(2) applies only to full-time teaching assistants.

Citing Matter of Walters v Amityville Union Free School Dist., 251 AD2d 590, and Matter of Cole v Board of Educ. of Syosset Cent. School Dist., 167 AD2d 538, the Appellate Division, noting that Petitioners "failed to establish that they were full-time teaching assistants entitled to the protections afforded under Education Law §3013(2)", held that Supreme Court properly denied their petitions.  

* Taylor Law contract provisions, however, may not adversely affect the layoff rights vested in employees by law. See, for example, Plattsburgh v Local 788, 108 AD2d 1045 and Szumigala v Hicksville Union Free School District, 148 AD2d 621, citing Cheektowaga v Nyquest, 38 NY2d 137.

 ** Matter of Madison-Oneida Bd. of Coop. Educ. Servs. v Mills, 4 NY3d 51.

Click HERE to access the Appellate Division's decision posted on the Internet.


The Layoff, Preferred List and Reinstatement Manual - a 645 page NYPPL e-book reviewing the relevant New York State laws, rules and regulations, and selected court and administrative decisions. For more information and access to a free excerpt of the material presented in this e-book, click here:



State Commission on Judicial Conduct determined a Town Court justice should be removed from office

The State Commission on Judicial Conduct determined that a Justice of a Town Court committed certain acts of misconduct and should be removed from office, citing Article VI, §22 of New York State's Constitution and Judiciary Law §44.

In lieu of a hearing, the Justice entered into an agreed statement of facts indicating that he had:

[1] "Brandished a loaded firearm at a litigant who was waiting for his case to be called; and

[2] Engaged in "improper fundraising".  

Finding that the "the record amply supports the conclusion that the Justice's misconduct 'transcends poor judgment' and warrants removal", the Court of Appeals held that the State Commission on Judicial Conduct's "determined sanction", removal from office, should be implemented.

Click HERE to access the Court of Appeals decision posted on the Internet.


October 21, 2023

Selected links to items focusing on government operations posted on the Internet during the week ending October 20, 2023

AI: 'A Helping Hand from Our Robot Overlords'
Arizona Chief Information Security Officer Ryan Murray sees two significant opportunities for artificial intelligence in cybersecurity. READ MORE

Cyber.Org Expands Initiative to Bring High Schoolers into Cyber
The group recently expanded its Project REACH program to more schools, as it looks to help create a more diverse cyber career pipeline. Many students are simply unaware of the career potential in the industry. READ MORE

Disaster Zone Podcast: A New Model for Emergency Management
How to do it differently. READ MORE

Ethical AI Procurement Requires Collaboration, Accountability
As state and local governments cautiously pursue AI, they must prioritize ethics, transparency and accountability in procurement to protect public interests and deliver on the technology's potential. READ MORE

FEMA Increases Climate Aid to Disadvantaged Communities
In FEMA’s desire to focus more on disadvantaged communities, the BRIC and FMA projects aim to deliver 40 percent of their overall benefits to communities that are “marginalized, overburdened by pollution and underserved.” READ MORE

How Should Public Libraries Leverage AI Technology?
A new report released last week by the Urban Libraries Council outlines five recommendations of how public libraries can use artificial intelligence technologies in their work to serve communities. READ MORE

NASCIO 2023 State CIO Survey Weighs IT Financial Models
The 2023 survey, released at the group’s annual conference, digs into several key issues for state CIOs: Are general funds better than chargebacks? Is cybersecurity insurance worth it? READ MORE

NYC Releases AI Action Plan, Business-Focused AI Chatbot
New York City has launched the MyCity Business Services chatbot in a beta form to help residents get information about starting or operating their businesses. The city also released an AI Action Plan to guide responsible city government use of the tech. READ MORE

One Year in, Public Safety Threat Alliance Plans for Growth
The Public Safety Threat Alliance plans to offer cybersecurity tabletop exercises and a real-time automated threat intelligence feed, and build up its international membership. READ MORE

Public Sector Tech Trends: A Modernization Guidebook
Learn how to build a more resilient, data-driven organization so you can meet demands like remote work, digital services, and risk management.

Redesigned Website Helps Org Better Respond to Disasters
Healthcare Ready has relaunched its website with new tools to help the public, the health-care sector and emergency managers to keep up with disasters and other health matters, including making it mobile friendly. READ MORE

Skills-Based Hiring Widens Potential Government Workforce
States and city governments are rethinking job requirements, replacing four-year degrees with proven skill applications to bring in new applicants.

State Data on Risk Factors for Cognitive Decline, HBI Road Map Webinar and New International Report of Risk Factors - READ MORE

Sustainability Is Key to State Plans for Federal Cyber Funds
As federal funding for local government cybersecurity comes down through state governments, North Carolina CIO James Weaver explains why it’s essential that projects aren’t just “one and done.” READ MORE



Subsequent court and administrative rulings, or changes to laws, rules and regulations may have modified or clarified or vacated or reversed the decisions summarized here. Accordingly, these summaries should be Shepardized® or otherwise checked to make certain that the most recent information is being considered by the reader.
New York Public Personnel Law Blog Editor Harvey Randall served as Principal Attorney, New York State Department of Civil Service; Director of Personnel, SUNY Central Administration; Director of Research, Governor’s Office of Employee Relations; and Staff Judge Advocate General, New York Guard. Consistent with the Declaration of Principles jointly adopted by a Committee of the American Bar Association and a Committee of Publishers and Associations, the material posted to this blog is presented with the understanding that neither the publisher nor NYPPL and, or, its staff and contributors are providing legal advice to the reader and in the event legal or other expert assistance is needed, the reader is urged to seek such advice from a knowledgeable professional.
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