TO SEARCH this database type in a word or phrase in the box in the upper left and any material containing the word or phrase will be displayed for your review.

Also, §22 of the New York State's General Construction Law, in pertinent part, provides that “Whenever words of the masculine or feminine gender appear in any law, rule or regulation, unless the sense of the sentence indicates otherwise, they shall be deemed to refer to both male or female persons.” NYPPL typically follows this protocol.

February 12, 2019

A public employee alleging that he or she has been "wrongful terminated" is required to bring a CPLR Article 78 proceeding seeking reinstatement and unpaid salary


A public employee alleging that he or she has been "wrongful terminated" is required to bring a CPLR Article 78 proceeding seeking reinstatement and unpaid salary
Village of Northport v Krumholz, 2019 NY Slip Op 00926, Appellate Division, Second Department

The Defendant in this action was appointed Treasurer of the Village of Northport and served in that capacity until the Village discovered that she had been appropriating Village funds to herself.*

The Village commenced this action against Defendant alleging that she had improperly written checks to herself from Village funds. Defendant filed a counterclaim alleged "wrongful termination and violation of Public Officers Law §36"** and asked the court to direct her reinstatement and payment of back salary.

Supreme Court granted the Village's motions summary judgment on its conversion and  its breach of fiduciary duty causes of actions, and dismissed, as time-barred, Defendant's counterclaim. Defendant appealed, contending that Supreme Court should not have granted Village's motion for summary judgment dismissing her counterclaim.

The Appellate Division sustained the Supreme Court's rulings, explaining that:

1. Defendant was required to bring a proceeding pursuant to CPLR Article 78 in order to pursue her claim of wrongful termination and to seek reinstatement and unpaid salary; and

2. Citing Austin v Board of Higher Educ. of City of N.Y. , 5 NY2d 430, a CPLR Article 78 proceeding is the exclusive remedy for a discharged public employee, who must seek reinstatement prior to seeking unpaid salary.

As the Village established its prima facie entitlement to judgment as a matter of law dismissing the Defendant's counterclaim as time-barred, the claim not having not been filed within the controlling four-month statute of limitations, the Appellate Division noted that Defendant "was effectively terminated" in March, 2009 but did not file her counterclaim until January 4, 2013.

* Earlier Defendant had brought an action United States District Court "seeking overtime pay under the Fair Labor Standards Act" and alleged that her employment with the Village should not have been terminated without notice and hearing. The federal court dismissed Defendant's Fair Labor Standards Act claim and declined to consider the state law questions she presented. The filing of her federal action, however, did not toll the running of the controlling statute of limitations with respect to the litigation of Defendant's state law issues. Similarly, neither the filing an appeal from an administrative decision in accordance with a grievance procedure [Matter of Matter of Hazeltine v City of New York, 89 AD3d 613] nor a request for reconsideration of a final administrative decision [Cappellino v Town of Somers, 83 AD3d 934] toll the running of the statute of limitations for bringing an Article 78 action.

** §36 of the Public Officer Law sets out the procedures for the removal of a town, village, improvement district or fire district officer other than a justice of the peace.

The decision is posted on the Internet at:

Public Personnel Law E-books

The Discipline Book - A concise guide to disciplinary actions involving public employees in New York State set out in a 700 page e-book. For more information click on http://booklocker.com/books/5215.html

A Reasonable Disciplinary Penalty Under the Circumstances - A 442-page e-book focusing on determining an appropriate disciplinary penalty to be imposed on an employee in the public service in instances where the employee has been found guilty of misconduct or incompetence. Now available in two formats - as a large, paperback print edition and as an e-book. For more information click on

http://booklocker.com/books/7401.html


The Layoff, Preferred List and Reinstatement Manual - A 645 page e-book reviewing the relevant laws, rules and regulations, and selected court and administrative decisions. For more information click on http://booklocker.com/books/5216.html


General Municipal Law §§207-a and 207-c - Disability Leave for fire, police and other public sector personnel - A 1098 page e-book focusing on administering General Municipal Law Sections 207-a/207-c and providing benefits thereunder. For more information click on

http://booklocker.com/books/3916.html


Please Note:

Subsequent court and administrative rulings, or additions or amendments to laws, rules and regulations may have modified or clarified or vacated or reversed or otherwise have had an impact on the decisions summarized here. Accordingly, these summaries should be Shepardized® or otherwise checked to make certain that the most recent information is being considered by the reader.

THE MATERIAL ON THIS WEBSITE IS FOR INFORMATION ONLY. AGAIN, REMEMBER THAT CHANGES IN LAWS, RULES, REGULATIONS AND NEW COURT AND ADMINISTRATIVE DECISIONS MAY AFFECT THE ACCURACY OF THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THIS LAWBLOG.

THE MATERIAL PRESENTED IS NOT LEGAL ADVICE AND THE USE OF ANY MATERIAL POSTED ON THIS WEBSITE DOES NOT CREATE AN ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP.

Consistent with the Declaration of Principles jointly adopted by a Committee of the American Bar Association and a Committee of Publishers and Associations, the material in this blog is presented with the understanding that the publisher, editor, contributors or members of the staff are not providing legal advice to the reader and in the event legal or other expert assistance is needed, the reader is advised to seek such advice from a competent professional.