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State of New York vs. COVID-19 - Governor Andrew M. Cuomo periodically updates New Yorkers on the state's progress during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The latest reports of the number of new cases, the percentage of tests that were positive and many other relevant data points concerning COVID-19 are available at

N.B. §22 of the New York State's General Construction Law, in pertinent part, provides that “Whenever words of the masculine or feminine gender appear in any law, rule or regulation, unless the sense of the sentence indicates otherwise, they shall be deemed to refer to both male or female persons.” NYPPL applies this protocol to individuals referred to in a decision self-identifying as LGBTQA+.

November 11, 2016

Village of Hoosick Falls - Health Risks of PFCs

Village of Hoosick Falls - Health Risks of PFCs
Source: NYSBA New York Environmental Lawyer, 36(2):88-111, Fall 2016.

The New York State Bar Association’s New York Environmental Lawyerhas published an article by Dr. Robert A. Michaels entitled Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in the Village of Hoosick Falls, Rensselaer County, New York:  health risks and successive approximation toward enforceable national regulation. 

Dr. Michaels notes that “PFCs, most notably PFOA and PFOS found in drinking water in the ppt [parts per trillion] range at which they are toxic, reveal the need for routine monitoring, aggressive cleanup, and promulgation of enforceable regulation to control human exposure, prevent disease, and help to clarify accountability, thereby preventing similar incidents elsewhere.

“In short, PFOA exhibits a ‘perfect storm’ of troubling properties: essentially infinite lifetime in the environment, resistance to human metabolism, bioconcentration in the food chain, transmissibility to infants via breastfeeding, years-long excretion half-time in the human body, and causation of human cancer and non-cancer effects.”

The article is posted on the Internet at:

Public Personnel Law E-books

The Discipline Book - A concise guide to disciplinary actions involving public employees in New York State set out in a 700 page e-book. For more information click on

A Reasonable Disciplinary Penalty Under the Circumstances - A 442-page e-book focusing on determining an appropriate disciplinary penalty to be imposed on an employee in the public service in instances where the employee has been found guilty of misconduct or incompetence. Now available in two formats - as a large, paperback print edition and as an e-book. Click on for more information.

The Layoff, Preferred List and Reinstatement Manual - A 645 page e-book reviewing the relevant laws, rules and regulations, and selected court and administrative decisions. For more information click on

Disability Leave for fire, police and other public sector personnel - A 1098 page e-book focusing on disability benefits available to public officers and employees employed by New York State and its political subdivisions. For more information click on