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State of New York vs. COVID-19 - Governor Andrew M. Cuomo periodically updates New Yorkers on the state's progress during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The latest reports of the number of new cases, the percentage of tests that were positive and many other relevant data points concerning COVID-19 are available at

N.B. §22 of the New York State's General Construction Law, in pertinent part, provides that “Whenever words of the masculine or feminine gender appear in any law, rule or regulation, unless the sense of the sentence indicates otherwise, they shall be deemed to refer to both male or female persons.” NYPPL applies this protocol to individuals referred to in a decision self-identifying as LGBTQA+.

January 12, 2011

Enlarging the probationary period

Enlarging the probationary period
Caruso v Ward, 546 NYS2d 853

The New York City Police Department decided to change the initial probationary period for police officers from eighteen months to two years. The Union challenged the decision and asked the Courts to annul the change.

The Appellate Division sustained the Department’s changing the term of the probationary period for newly appointed police officers, citing a number of reasons for its ruling.

The Court said that the Union:

(1) had failed to show that it had a clear legal right to the relief it sought [reversion to the 18 month probationary period] and

(2) it did not present any evidence of bad faith, illegality or arbitrary action by the Department in extending the maximum period of probation for new appointees to the force.

The Appellate Division then said that “the decision to enlarge the probationary period was rationally related to the goal of more thorough evaluation of [a] new officers’ fitness for duty” and denied the union’s appeal.

Public Personnel Law E-books

The Discipline Book - A concise guide to disciplinary actions involving public employees in New York State set out in a 700 page e-book. For more information click on

A Reasonable Disciplinary Penalty Under the Circumstances - A 442-page e-book focusing on determining an appropriate disciplinary penalty to be imposed on an employee in the public service in instances where the employee has been found guilty of misconduct or incompetence. Now available in two formats - as a large, paperback print edition and as an e-book. For more information click on

The Layoff, Preferred List and Reinstatement Manual - A 645 page e-book reviewing the relevant laws, rules and regulations, and selected court and administrative decisions. For more information click on

Disability Leave for fire, police and other public sector personnel - A 1098 page e-book focusing on disability benefits available to public officers and employees employed by New York State and its political subdivisions. For more information click on