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State of New York vs. COVID-19 - Governor Andrew M. Cuomo periodically updates New Yorkers on the state's progress during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The latest reports of the number of new cases, the percentage of tests that were positive and many other relevant data points concerning COVID-19 are available at

N.B. §22 of the New York State's General Construction Law, in pertinent part, provides that “Whenever words of the masculine or feminine gender appear in any law, rule or regulation, unless the sense of the sentence indicates otherwise, they shall be deemed to refer to both male or female persons.” NYPPL applies this protocol to individuals referred to in a decision self-identifying as LGBTQA+.

January 13, 2011

Representation and indemnification of a public employee being sued

Representation and indemnification of a public employee being sued
Ganzman v Hess, App. Div., 273 A.D.2d 352

Defending a public employee who is being sued as a result of some act or omission in the performance of his or her official duties is an important benefit. When Joel Ganzman, the Deputy Public Administrator of the Office of the Public Administrator of Kings County [Office] was named as a defendant in a Federal discrimination suit, [Gryga v Ganzman, Docket No. 97 Civ 3929, USDC, EDNY], he asked Michael D. Hess, Corporation Counsel of the City of New York and the City of New York, to defend him and, if necessary, indemnify him if he was held liable for damages. Hess rejected Ganzman’s request on the ground that he was not a City employee.

Ganzman sued and won a court order by a State Supreme Court Justice requiring Hess, and the City of New York, to defend and indemnify him should the need arise.

Hess appealed. The Appellate Division affirmed the result, but for a different reason. It said that it is undisputed that the expenses of the Office are funded at least in part by the City. Accordingly, said the court, the Office is an agency of the City as defined by General Municipal Law Section 50-k(1)(a). Since Ganzman holds a position in the Office, he is an employee as defined by GML Section 50-k(1)( e). Conclusion: he is entitled to the defense available to any employee under GML Section 50-k(2).

Public Personnel Law E-books

The Discipline Book - A concise guide to disciplinary actions involving public employees in New York State set out in a 700 page e-book. For more information click on

A Reasonable Disciplinary Penalty Under the Circumstances - A 442-page e-book focusing on determining an appropriate disciplinary penalty to be imposed on an employee in the public service in instances where the employee has been found guilty of misconduct or incompetence. Now available in two formats - as a large, paperback print edition and as an e-book. For more information click on

The Layoff, Preferred List and Reinstatement Manual - A 645 page e-book reviewing the relevant laws, rules and regulations, and selected court and administrative decisions. For more information click on

Disability Leave for fire, police and other public sector personnel - A 1098 page e-book focusing on disability benefits available to public officers and employees employed by New York State and its political subdivisions. For more information click on